PublicationCritical Analysis of Corporate Governance Strategies on Financial Performance of Commercial Banks, Kenya.(Mount Kenya University, 2023-01) Kasuni, Julius SukaEffective Corporate Governance is a critical component of value addition in virtually all aspects of corporate performance. Annual financial reports by the Central Bank of Kenya for the period 2010-2019 showed a declining trend in the general performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya, during which Returns on Assets (ROA) declined from 4.51% to 3.84% and Returns on Equity (ROE) from 29.4% to 25.6%. The Study sought to critically analyze Influence of Corporate Governance Strategies on Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya. The Study investigated; Corporate Governance Structure, Strategic Leadership, Board Composition and Accountability System. Explanatory Research Design was used to guide the conduct of the Study. A sample population of 112 managers drawn from 8 out of the 9 large banks were selected as respondents, for the period 2010-2019. The Study was guided by four theories; Agency Theory, Stewardship Theory, Stakeholder Theory and Financial Intermediation Theory. Data collection was done by use of a close-ended and open-ended questionnaire in which 85 (76%) of the 112 questionnaires were returned. Secondary data were collected from published Annual Financial Reports of Commercial Banks, by the CBK for the period 2010-2019. Content Validity of the research instrument was tested by subject matter experts comprising of the researcher’s supervisors and defense panelists from and outside Mount Kenya University. Reliability of the research instrument was tested using the Cronbach’s Alpha test, which gave an alpha value of 0.8, well within the acceptable range of α ≥ 0.7. Data analyses were done by use of both Descriptive and Inferential statistics. Descriptive data analysis consisted of summarizing the data into tables and describing characteristics of the data set using means and standard deviations. Inferential analysis was done by use of a multiple regression analysis program in a SSPS-26 Software, which gave an Adjusted R2 equal to .765 indicating that Corporate Governance Strategies correlated well with Financial Performance of Commercial Banks. The analyzed data were presented using, graphs, pie chart and tables. The findings showed that there was a significant positive correlation between Corporate Governance Structure, Strategic Leadership, and Accountability System with Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya while Board Composition was partially significant. Financial Performance was measured by use of profitability ratios, ROA and ROE. The Moderating variable comprised of Government controls and regulations and were analyzed by use of inferential statistics. The result showed that the adjusted R2 dropped from .765 to .608 indicating a decline of .157 (15.7%), which was the influence of the Moderating variable on the strength of the correlation between independent variables and the dependent variable. The conclusion of the study was that Corporate Governance Strategies influenced financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya, with Strategic Leadership producing the greatest influence, with an Adjusted R2 of .812 (81.2%). The study recommended that Commercial Banks in Kenya entrench Strategic Leadership in their corporate governance practices, minimize conflicts of interest between shareholders and corporate level managers, and promote inclusivity in the management process in order to maximize financial performance of commercial bank PublicationAnalysis of the Effect of Water Sector Reforms on Governance of Water by Athi Water Services Board, Kenya(Mount Kenya University, 2023-05)The governance of the AWSB remains a challenge. There are concerns about corruption, limited stakeholder participation and weak accountability mechanisms. This has led to inefficiencies, mismanagement of water resources and inadequate access to clean and safe water for the population served by the AWSB. This study examined the effects of water sector reforms on governance at Athi Water Services Board, analyzing coverage, reporting, stakeholder participation, challenges, and the influence of government legislation and donors, using a mixed-methods approach and data from 80 employees at various management levels.Validity and reliability of the research instruments were assessed, and both qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted. The correlation results revealed significant positive associations between coverage, reporting, and stakeholder participation with governance (r=.726, p=.000; r=.734, p=000; r=.611, p=000), while challenges exhibited a negative and significant association (r=-.458, p=000). Regression analysis further indicated that coverage (β=.337, p=0.000), reporting (β=.241, p=0.004), and stakeholder participation (β=.182, p=0.039) were positively and significantly related to governance, whereas challenges (β=.-135, p=0.046) had a negative and significant impact. Moreover, government legislation and donors were identified as effective moderators. Based on the findings, several recommendations are proposed. These include establishing adequate connectivity to informal sectors with sufficient water supply, developing additional water sources, and improving the frequency of water supply in urban areas. It is crucial to prepare and maintain a strategic plan, ensure the independence of the finance department from management, and enable stakeholders to freely inspect financial records. Active involvement of stakeholders is recommended to better understand the root causes of challenges in the water sector. Adequate funding should be directed towards the water sector to facilitate project engagement, and efforts should be made to enhance services for the benefit of Kenyans. Finally, investments should be prioritized in infrastructure necessary for the production of clean water. PublicationAnalysis of Kaizen Systems on Performance of Tea Processing Firms in Kenya(Mount Kenya University, 2023-06) WANJOBI,GEORGE MUTURIThe purpose of the study was to ascertain the Analysis of Kaizen Systems on performance of Kenyan tea processing firms in Kenya. Performance of Tea Processing firms has been on an overtime decline of quality hence fetching low prices in the global market. The specific objectives that guided this reserch include to: determine influence of quality cycles, assess the influence of teamwork, influence of personal discipline and total productive maintenance systems on firm performance of tea processing companies in Kenya. The study is of significance to the administration of Tea processing firms, policy makers, scholars and the addition to the body of knowledge. The study also checked the moderating function of organizational dynamic capability on linkage between Kaizen Systems and performance of tea processing firms. The research was guided by Deming's quality improvement theory, dynamic capabilities theory and growth of the firm theory. Pragmatism research philosophy was employed in this research. Further, explanatory research design was deemed appropriate for the research. The study population under consideration was 66 operations managers of all the tea producing companies. A census of all the 66 operations managers was conducted. Utilizing structured questionnaires, both quantitative and qualitative data was gathered for analysis. Data analysis was undertaken utilizing SPSS Version 23.0. The multiple regression coefficient results indicated that quality cycles had greatest positive and significant relationship with performance of tea processing firms in Kenya where (β =.335) and p=.011). There was also a positive and significant relationship between personal discipline and performance of tea processing firms in Kenya where (β =.415 and p=.031). The regression coefficient of teamwork had positive and significant relationship with performance of tea processing firms in Kenya where (β =.511 and p=.001). Finally, the results indicate that there was a positive and significant relationship between total productive maintenance systems and performance of tea processing firms in Kenya where (β =.461 and p=.012). The study found that organizational dynamic capability moderates the relationship between Kaizen Systems and performance of tea processing firms. Based on the findings, the study concludes that quality cycles are critically important in the production of tea. The study also makes a conclusion that teamwork, personal discipline and total productive maintenance systems are significant component of Kaizen systems that influence tea production. The tea processing firms should work in coordination with quality standards bodies including Kenya Bureau of Standards, food Safety management systems among others to enhance production of quality tea. The study recommends that tea processing firms need to cultivate culture of team work among their workers by emphasizing virtues of unity and togetherness. The study recommends for the need to cultivate virtue of timeliness in task accomplishment among workers of tea processing firms. This can be conducted through workshops, close mentorship programs and support for employees’ growth and welfare programs. The study recommends for periodic diagnostic and maintenance of firm machines and equipment through well trained firm personnel. Thus, training of personnel on the maintenance of tea production equipment is essentially important in ensuring that costs arising from breakdowns are minimized. Organizational dynamic capability moderates the relationship between Kaizen Systems and performance of tea processing firms. The study recommends that tea processing firms should invest in research and development, training, networking capability and innovation since it affects performance positively. PublicationAnalysis of Internal Corporate Social Responsibility Strategies on Organizational Commitment in Five Star Hotels in Kenya(Mount Kenya University, 2023-06) Maalim, Bashir MohamudIn Kenya, five star hotels lead in employees’ turnover within the hotel industry at 68% as compared to other establishments. Turnover has great impact on contribution to the national economy and performance of the hotels. The purpose of this study was to analyse the influence of internal corporate social responsibility strategies on organizational commitment in five star hotels in Kenya. The research objectives were: to assess the influence of shareholder strategy on organizational commitment in five star hotels in Kenya; to evaluate the influence of reciprocal strategy on organizational commitment in five star hotels in Kenya; to establish the influence of altruistic strategy on organizational commitment in five star hotels in Kenya; to assess the influence of citizenship strategy on organizational commitment in five star hotels in Kenya; and to examine the effect of employee demographic features as moderating variable on the relationship between internal corporate social responsibility strategies and organizational commitment in five star hotels in Kenya. This study was anchored on Resource-Based Theory, Social Exchange Theory and Social Identity Theory. The study adopted descriptive research design with cross-sectional approach to examine the study variables. The target population was 216; Operations and Line managers in five star hotels in Kenya. A total sample of 144 managers were selected for the study and a self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. A pilot testing for reliability of the questionnaire was conducted testing with Cronbach Alpha of 0.7 and above, while content and construct validity of the questionnaire was discussed with peers and application of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin score greater than 0.5 respectively. The pilot data did not form part of the main study data. Actual field data was subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. The findings revealed that the independent variables used in this study (Shareholder Strategy, Reciprocal Strategy, Altruistic Strategy, Citizenship Strategy) had positive and statistically significant influence and were able to jointly explain 74.2% of the variations in Organizational Commitment in five star hotels in Kenya. The shareholder strategy was found leading among the other internal corporate social responsibility strategies with coefficient (β=0.371, P<0.05), compared to reciprocal strategy (β=0.164, P<0.05), altruistic strategy (β=0.206, P<0.05), and citizenship strategy (β=0.120, P<0.05, indicating the importance of shareholder strategy over the other strategies in achieving organizational commitment. Similarly, employee’s demographic features have statistically significant moderating effect on the relationship between internal corporate social responsibility strategies and organizational commitment in five star hotels in Kenya. The study concluded that internal corporate social responsibility strategies provide concrete foundation in ensuring employee retention through commitment. The study recommends to the managements of five star hotels in Kenya, Federation of Kenya Employers and Kenya Association of Hotelkeepers & Caterers that they should strive in implementing internal corporate social responsibility strategies because hotels with good internal corporate social responsibility strategies can better attract, motivate, and retain workers. The study suggests further studies on relations between internal corporate social responsibility strategies and organizational commitment with firm age as moderating variable and in similar or different context and research approach. PublicationAnalysis of Value Innovation Strategies on Performance of Commercial Banks, Kenya.(Mount Kenya University, 2022-07) Kalekye, Mutisya TeresiaPerformance of Commercial Banks in Kenya has been on decline in the last one decade with majority of the banks making minimal profit while others experiencing a yearly decline of more than 10% in profitability. Consequently, most of the banks have also been experiencing a shrinking market share. Given the changes in the business environment such as entrance of new competitors, dynamic innovations, legislative and economic dynamics, organizations need to make choices that add value to customers and those, which will enable the organization, remain relevant in such a dynamic environment. It is on this context that this study sought to analyze the influence of value innovation strategies on performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya. The objectives were; To examine influence of processes innovation strategy on performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya; to investigate influence of technological change strategy on performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya, to examine influence of positioning strategy on performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya, to examine influence of strategic alliance on performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya and to examine the moderating effect of government regulations on relationship between value innovation strategies and performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya. To achieve the objectives of the study, explanatory research design was used.. Primary data was collected by means of questionnaire whereas the secondary data was gathered from relevant literature resources, organization’s annual reports and website. Cronbach’s Alpha co-efficient was applied to test the reliability of the data with an acceptable level of 0.7. The reliability score in this study was 0.808. The study targeted tier 2 Commercial Banks in Kenya with the top management bank employees as the key respondents. With the right strategies, these banks are capable of advancing to tier 1 category. The study employed census targeting the entire population of the 162 top management bank employees. 18 respondents from Family Bank Limited were considered for pilot study through convenience method. The pilot respondents were excluded from the main study leaving out 144 respondents who were considered in the main study. Out of the 144 respondents, 120 responded the questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics was applied in examining the information. Descriptive statistics entailed the measure of central tendency (mean) and the measure of dispersions (standard deviation). The SPSS was applied to generate the statistics. Inferential statistics entailed regression and correlation analysis. Data was presented using tables. The overall R2 was 0.632. The study established processes innovation strategy, technological change strategy and positioning strategy had significant influence on performance of commercial banks in Kenya however the influence of strategic alliance on performance of commercial banks was moderate. The study resolved that, firstly, mobile and internet banking has enabled customers to access essential services at the comfort of their homes or offices. Secondly, big data solutions facilitate safeguarding of customers’ information. Thirdly, banks targets different categories of customers and uses differentiated channels in order to reach out to them hence the researcher recommends that banks should adopt value innovation strategies in order to enhance performance PublicationAnalysis of the relationship between school management practices and the implementation of human resource development in public primary schools in Nyeri county, Kenya(Mount Kenya University, 2021-07) Wakori, Samuel KaniaruPractices adopted by school management play an important role in promoting human resource development dynamics of teachers. Schools ensure that teachers are comfortable while executing their duties. However, in many public primary schools in Nyeri County, the situation is quite different with implementation human resource development facing numerous challenges. There is promotion of few teachers, low teacher performance, teacher indiscipline and lack of morale among teachers for career progression. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between school management practices and implementation of human resource development in public primary schools in Nyeri County, Kenya. The objectives; to establish the relationship between teachers‘ induction practices and the implementation of human resource development in public primary schools; to analyze the relationship between teachers‘ professional development practices and the implementation of human resource development in public primary schools; to assess the relationship between teacher motivation practices and implementation of human resource development in public primary schools and to find out the relationship between teacher performance appraisal practices and the implementation of human resource development in public primary schools. The human capital management theory and the human resource management theory guided this study. The study adopted mixed methodology and concurrent triangulation design was applied. The target population included 400 headteachers, 1600 teachers, 400 chairpersons of school BoMs and the eight (8) sub county TSC Human Resource Officers totaling to 2408 from which a sample of 240 respondents were obtained. Stratified sampling was applied to select a sample size of eight (8) headteachers, 216 teachers and eight (8) chairpersons of school BoMs. Eight (8) Sub County TSC Human Resource Officers were purposively selected. The questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data from headteachers and teachers whereas interviews were used to collect qualitative data from chairpersons of school BoMs and Sub-county TSC Human Resource Officers. Piloting was conducted in Nyeri County among 24 respondents to establish validity, reliability, credibility and dependability of the research instruments. Validity was enhanced by piloting of instruments prior to collecting the final data. To enhance credibility, adjustments of the tools were done according to the opinion obtained from respondents during piloting and the advice provided by supervisors. Interactive questioning was used to enhance dependability. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages) and inferential statistics (the Pearson‘s Product Moment Correlation Test Analysis) with the help of SPSS Version 24 and presented using tables. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically and presented in narrative forms. The study established that implementation of human resource development programmes has been a challenge in many public primary schools. Very few primary school teachers are promoted as a way of improving their performance, many of them absent themselves from work and fail complete syllabus in time whereas many rarely undertake career progression activities. Thus, the study recommends that headteachers of public primary schools should put in place measures to ensure effective implementation of the outlined induction processes. The Ministry of Education should formulate managerial training content for the headteachers and ensure that such materials reach and are accessible to all headteachers of public primary schools. School managers should set aside money to adequately motivate teachers. The Teachers Service Commission should simplify the process of appraising teachers. PublicationAnalysis of relationship between entrepreneurship education practices and entrepreneurial intention of technical vocational education and training students in Kenya(Mount Kenya University, 2021-06) Kimathi, Ruth KirigoThe study analyzed relationship between entrepreneurship education practices and entrepreneurial intention of Technical and Vocational Education and Training students in Kenya. Succeeding specific objectives were considered. To determine effect of entrepreneurship training content on entrepreneurial intention of Technical and Vocational Education and Training students in Kenya, find out effect of entrepreneurship pedagogies on entrepreneurial intention of Technical Vocational Education and Training Students in Kenya, assess effect of trainer attributes on entrepreneurial intention of Technical and Vocational Education and Training students in Kenya and to determine if family orientation moderates relationship between entrepreneurship education practices and entrepreneurial intention of the reference group. Positivism research philosophy and explanatory research design approaches were used. Using stratified simple random sampling supported by key informer interviews. Data was collected through questionnaires and interviews from 365 respondents covering final year students, entrepreneurship trainers and management of public technical training institutions located in Nairobi and Kajiado Counties as at July 2018. Results from reliability analysis indicated a Cronbach alpha above 0.7 for all items thus reliable. Descriptive and inferential statistical tools of mean, standard deviation, percentage, correlation and linear regression model was utilized to analyze. The study used p-values and the t-statistic values to test hypothesis. Results were presented in narrative, graphs and tables. Results of hypothesis testing revealed a strong positive significant relationship between entrepreneurship education content (p=0.000<0.05); entrepreneurship pedagogies (p-value=0.004<0.05,); learning resources (p=0.029<0.05) and entrepreneurial intention of 8 students in Kenya. There was no statistically significant relationship between trainer attributes (p=0.093>0.05, and entrepreneurial intention of the referenced group. The moderation results showed that family orientation did not have moderating effect on the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable. The study thus concluded that entrepreneurship education content, entrepreneurship pedagogies, trainer attributes and learning resources can be used as predictors of entrepreneurial intention of Technical Vocational Education and Training students in Kenya. Study will benefit government, curriculum developer, researchers and management of Technical and Vocational Education and Training Institutions. A multi-agency approach and collaboration in implementation and management of entrepreneurship education was recommended. There is need for stakeholders to undertake holistic intentional measures aimed at strengthening entrepreneurship education practices. In addition, further study may be undertaken to establish percentage of Technical and Vocational Education and Training students who actualize their entrepreneurial intention into entrepreneurial action. PublicationEmpirical analysis of microfinance institutions support systems on performance of dairy farmers in Kakamega county, Kenya(Mount Kenya University, 2021-10) Sangoro, Oscar OnyangoEfforts by the National Government and County Government of Kakamega have been directed toward improving dairy performance in the County. The county government has partnered with some MFIs to support dairy farming in the county in attempt to optimise milk supply and thus achieve dietary diversity, which is one of the 2030 Agenda For sustainable development (SDGs), as the county as well as the entire world rely on milk and dairy products from other counties. However, little attention has been directed toward the relationship between MFI support systems and the performance of smallholder dairy farmers in Kakamega. This study sought to find out an empirical study on microfinance institution's support systems' influence on the performance of dairy farmers in Kakamega County. The study's specific goals were to look into the impact of MFI technical support systems on dairy farmers' performance in Kakamega County, assess the influence of the MFI credit system on the performance of dairy farmers in Kakamega County, establish the influence of MFI micro insurance support systems on the performance of dairy farmers in Kakamega County, establish the influence of MFI saving systems on the performance of dairy farmers in Kakamega County and determine the influence of government policy on the relationship between microfinance institution support systems and the performance of dairy farmers in Kakamega County. The following three theories guided the research:knowledge-based theory, prospect theory, credit rationing theory and expected utility theory. The researcher identified Kakamega County as the target region of study because it has low milk production despite huge due potential in dairy farming. The study target population was1310 dairy farmers spread in 12 sub-counties as obtained from 17 Microfinance institutions in the county. The study sample size was 297 .Primary data was collected using questionnaires and an interview guide. Secondary data was obtained using document analysis. A pilot study was conducted. The findings were presented using tables, models, and charts. The Micro Finance Institutions' processes have a considerable impact on the performance of dairy producers in Kakamega, according to the data. Microfinance technical systems have played a key role in dairy farming performance because they improve the quality and quantity of dairy products by upgrading production technology. Micro Finance Institutions' credit systems had a positive contribution to the dairy performance. MFIs micro-insurance systems had a significant contribution to dairy farming through prompt compensation. MFI saving had a significant positive contribution to dairy farming performance. Government policies had substantial regulating variables on the association among dairy farming performance besides Micro Finance Institutions saving as well as technical systems. The study recommended that the Micro Finance Institutions need to collaborate with other organization and institution both government and non-government to ensure that farmers receive technical systems which will support dairy farmers. PublicationRelationship of turnaround strategies on organizational performance of KCB Bank and Uchumi supermarket(Mount Kenya University, 2021-07) GATHIRU, MARTIN KIMEMIAThis was a study on relationship of turnaround strategies on organizational performance of enterprises in Kenya: A case of KCB Bank and Uchumi supermarket. Specific objectives crafted for the study were: to investigate the the way human, finance, coporate planning and marketing turnaround strategies relate to organizational performance in KCB Bank and Uchumi Supermarket. The study was significant because it compared vital nexus between turnaround strategies and organizational performance in KCB bank and Uchumi supermarket. The study was carried out using open ended, closed ended questionnaires and interviews. The theories underpinning the study were resource based view, dynamic capabilities theory, open systems theory, and competitive theory. Empirical studies were carried out per objective. The target population was 450 and 660 Uchumi and KCB staff respectively.The sample sizecalculated using Nassiuma’s (2009) formula was 82 and 87 Uchumi and KCB staff respectively making a total of 169 respondents). Causal research design was used. The validity of the questionnaire was examined using the face and content validity while the reliability was examined using the Cronbach alpha coefficient. Data was analysedusing descriptive statistics (means, frequency distribution and standard deviations) and inferential statistics (linear correlation and multiple linear regressions). There were significant relationship between corporate planning and organizational performance in KCB bank and Uchumi Supermarket since F (1, 139) = 5.356,p=0.022<0.05, no significant relationship between finance strategies and organizational performance in KCB bank and Uchumi Supermarket since F (1, 139) =0.019, p=0.892>0.05, no major relationship between HR strategies and organizational performance based in KCB and Uchumi supermarket since F (1, 139) =0.290, p=0.591>0.05, no significant relationship between marketing strategies and organizational performance in KCB bank and Uchumi Supermarket since F (1, 139) =0.760, p=0.385>0.05.Key recommendation were for FMCG retail outlets (uchumi supermarket) to implement turnaround strategies starting with marketing followed by finance, human resource and finally corporate planning turnaround strategies. However, to finance retail outlet (KCB Bank) corporate planning is a priority focus followed by human resource then marketing and finally finance strategies. PublicationRelationship between Tax Compliance Barriers and Government’s Revenue Generation at Gobonimo Market in Somaliland(International Journal of Business Management and Economic Research, 2015) Elmi, Mukhtar Abdi; Kerosi, Evans; Tirimba, Ondabu IbrahimThe study examined tax compliance and its effects on government’s revenue generation. The specific objectives were to determine how computerization of tax collection, tax literacy, tax investigation and audits affects government’s revenue generation. The theoretical framework was based on the benefit theory of taxation, the equal sacrifice theory and the ability theory. The empirical review was be guided by the study objectives. Descriptive research design was used. The target population comprised of all the 150 business owners of Gobonimo market. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted from which a total of 52 respondents formed part of the sample size. Both primary and secondary data was used. Primary data was collected by use of the questionnaires while secondary data was collected by use of already published materials. A 1% pilot test of the sample size was computed to determine the viability of research instruments. Reliability was tested by the Cronbach’s alpha test. The researcher ensured content validity by ensuring that the questionnaire was well structured and that it contained all the relevant questions responsible to ensure the study’s purpose is achieved. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and through percentages and later presented by use of frequency tables. The study findings reveal that taxpayers lack knowledge of how to use tax machines. Also, the findings reveal that if implemented, tax computerization could results to higher tax compliance levels. The study established that taxpayers are not enlightened on the benefits of paying taxes nor are they aware of the current tax rates, current tax issues and even emerging issues in taxation. The study found out that tax authorities at Gabonimo market do not conduct tax audits aimed at ensuring greater compliance in tax payment. The study recommends for the computerization of tax through the use of tax machines such as electronic tax registers and point of sale machines. Tax payers should be enlightened on the current and emerging issues in taxation and also sensitized on the benefits of paying taxes. Taxpayers also through those sensitization forums should be informed the prevailing tax rates and how best to remit taxes to the authorities. Voluntary tax compliance should be encouraged but there should be periodic audits and investigations to ensure taxpayers are compliance as per the prevailing tax laws. This study recommends further research on the relationship between tax education and voluntary tax compliance at Gabonimo market in Somaliland and also the role of tax audits in tax compliance PublicationChallenges of rural communities in attaining sustainable development in Rwanda: a case of Gashaki sector in Musanze District(Mount Kenya University, 2014) Uwimana, VincentThis study was set out to assess Challenges and Opportunities of Rural Communities in Rwanda in Attaining Sustainable Development using a case study of Gashaki Sector in Musanze district. The research questions focused on challenges hindering development among Rwandan rural communities in Gashaki Sector, opportunities found among Rwandan rural communities in Gashaki Sector to be used in order to fast track sustainable development, role of the government and Community Based Organizations in rural communities’ sustainable development of Gashaki sector. The targeted population was 13,630 residents of Gashaki Sector made by 6,502 males and 7,128 females in Musanze District out of which a sample of 100 respondents was chosen using the simple random sampling technique. The study employed a descriptive research design using a case study area and both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Sources of data included both primary data which were gathered using self-administered questionnaire and a structured interview and secondary data which were gathered from different text books, journals and existing documents of Musanze District. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 17 and statistical tools like numbers, frequencies and tables were used in the exercise. The findings of this research revealed that low level of income, insufficiency in commercialization of agricultural production, rural poverty, lack of investment in tourism, insufficient allocation of budgets and credits facilities, lack of basic infrastructure, limited access to financial facilities, weakness in rural natural disaster management, unqualified work force, lack of social justice in providing socio-economic facilities among rural and urban areas, weakness of people’s participation in projects implementation, low NGOs’ participation and rising food and energy prices were some of the challenges faced in the course of sustainable development. On the other hand, fair agribusiness opportunities, enough rain for agriculture, community cooperatives, enough security and peace in the area, government support, were found to be some of the opportunities. The researcher recommends that civil societies, government, nongovernmental organizations, community based organizations should provide assistance of whatever sort so as to address revealed and even other non-revealed challenges. There should be a decentralized planning so that local communities participation in developmental projects can be high, there should be proper allocation of developmental facilities among urban and rural communities, there should be enough budget allocated in disaster management, there should be trainings to the rural communities on the new production technologies and sustainable development. Thus interested parties should take their role in addressing challenges if Musanze particularly Gashaki and Rwanda in general are to achieve a sustainable development. This research helped the researcher in getting new knowledge and skills in conducting different researches and fulfilling the requirements for the degree of master of business administration, it added value to the existing literature for students and other PublicationNon-governmental organization(NGOS) in promoting gender equality and women empowerment in Rwanda Nyarugenge District(Mount Kenya University, 2014) Lyakaremye, Omar SuleimanRwanda government had embarrassed form its history all forms of gender inequality and discrimination against women as well as other country around the world. The rationale of this study is to assess the role of NGOs locally and internationally in gender equality and women promotion in Rwanda. The study was not conducted countrywide, but only limited to Nyarugenge district, where the researcher targeted but not only Pro-femmes Twese Hamwe members where most of NGOs operate in gender promotion, was not easy to find an organization working in promoting both male and female last years but now we can see some of them are changing trends by involving men and women in their empowerment projects. The researcher used the questionnaire for customers that benefited from NGOs assistance, the local government staffs and NGOs staffs in order to collect primary data. To collect the secondary data, the researcher used documentation, observation, and interviews. The study also defined the keys terms, qualitative and quantitative techniques were used in literature review. To analyse data, the researcher used the methods such as coding, analysis and tabulation. The sample size of this study has been calculated using the formula of Alain Bouchard. After analysing the results, the study reveals that through the information got from respondents, a large number of respondents agreed that NGOs played a great role promoting gender equality and women empowerment through different domains of intervention such as education, health services and trainings. Finally the next leaps of gender equality and women promotion should be studied and further investigated to modernize the context. This project is a contribution of NGOs on promoting gender equality and women empowerment by empowerment approach in social development of Rwanda. PublicationGlobalization and its effects on Rwandan Culture(Mount Kenya University, 2013) Nshimiyimana, SalomonWith the help of advancement in technologies such as internet and other media channels; rich and dominant countries continue to spread economic, political and social-cultural dominance through what is commonly known as globalization. The current study investigated effects of globalization on Rwandan culture. The study was conducted at the community of the School of Finance and Banking as the target population and 320 members were used as the accessible population. Then, by using snowball sampling technique, the researchers managed to get the 32 participants who were then used in the study as the sample size. The study took a qualitative approach and its choice was based on the fact that it allowed the flow of detailed information from participants who willingly accepted to share with the researcher their own views, experiences and opinions about possible effects of globalization on Rwandan culture. Thus, qualitative in-depth-interviews with open ended questions or themes either in groups and/or individually were used in conjunction with observational, contextual and desk-based techniques were used. The findings obtained after a careful and critical pure qualitative analysis of data revealed that globalization has both positive and negative effects on Rwandan culture. Moreover, the findings obtained indicate that the most affected group is the young generation and who are at risk of being too dominated by western cultures to forget all their cultural roots. In this regard, the researcher further recommends that through formal and informal education, Rwandan generations should continuously be taught the importance of safeguarding their own culture. PublicationThe community participation in education service delivery in public schools in Rwanda(Mount Kenya University, 2013) Aline, NiwemkobwaThe study focused on “The community participation on education service delivery in public schools in Rwanda”. The objectives of this study is to investigate the role of the local community in education Service delivery, to establish the available ways the community make the contribution toward education Service delivery .The researcher gathered the information from several textbooks, journals, research reports and electronic sources of information closely related to theme of study; The study findings are going to help other researchers and scholars in their academic area, The results from the research will help the Government to improve on monitoring and evaluation of Community participation in education service delivery programs. The literature review includes: Issues on community participation, barriers to community participation and conceptual framework. The study used the appropriate methodology to collect data; using survey design; and therefore, it was possible to get variety of views, opinions, attitude and experiences of respondents using questionnaires as the main research instrument, and using Key Informants Interview for the local leaders and local population who has been sampled and selected by purposive sampling procedure. Findings confirmed there is the community participation on Education Service Delivery, also Community take part in Education Service Delivery. The study investigated ways of community participation in education service Delivery, and the respondents confirmed that their participation was trough financial and labor support. The study shows that the major challenges facing Community participation in education service delivery include: unarticulated strategies set by local government , poor coordination, lack of cooperation , weak involvement of private sector were that the among ether challenges. The study suggested Central Government must do a design and setting chain of command and communication at all levels of Participation. The District needed to emphasis on administration capacity and coordination for improving Community Participation in education service delivery and promoting Partners engagement (Civil society, Private sector), the Ministry must appoint one person (full-time) at Cells Level to attend all other relevant working from Community Participation, to have joint targets for crosscutting issues on Community Participation. The community is required to increase participation in financial support, and labor. Private Sector and Civil Society should play specific and important part role in Community participation on Promoting education service delivery. The challenges identified during the course of this study may not have been exhaustively mentioned by the respondents contacted. However, these are the most pressing ones that seriously affected the Community Participation on Education Service Delivery in Gasabo District as explained by research. PublicationHurdles in policy implementation and efficiency in decentralization: a case study of the decentralized policy by Rwanda Governance Board(Mount Kenya University, 2013) Emmanuel, MurenziThe Government of Rwanda has adopted many policies for her governance processes. Of the many policies, the Decentralization policy, for purposes of this research project, was taken as a case study. The Policy was adopted on the 26th May 2000 for Rwanda’s various governance approaches. Thirteen years down the road, as evidenced by 100% of all respondents. Some of them include limited finance, poor coordination, poor human resource capacities to mention but a few. More will be discussed in details. The decentralization policy was chosen because it crosscuts all sectors and therefore its ineffective implementation affects all other policies. The researcher took a census of all the 63 employees of the Rwanda Governance Board because this is generally a small number and the researcher tried to have every one respond to questionnaires. The RGB has the overall oversight function of policy implementation not only of the decentralization policy but of all other governance policies and was therefore considered best case study for this reason. The researcher used the descriptive research design. The study was guided by both a general objective and specific objectives. With the general objective, the researcher assessed the hurdles encountered in policy implementation and efficiency in decentralization. With the specific objectives; the research firstly identified the hurdles to policy implementation and efficiency in decentralization, secondly; to determine the efficient strategies toward policy implementation and thirdly; to explore the different policies governing public institutions. Data was collected from respondents to help understand why to date there are yet hurdles in policy implementation and efficiency in decentralization. Findings will be useful to many stakeholders in a number of ways; the academia, the public, learning institutions, and non-government stakeholders. Government will use the findings for appropriate decision making to address the hurdles further. They will also be a basis for further research. In order to ensure policy implementation and efficiency in decentralization, it was therefore recommended that the government increases the funding in public institutions, consider various stake holder participation, increase financial resources, capacity building, and also increased coordination and monitoring to mention but a few. PublicationRural electrification as a strategic driver for rural community and development in Rwanda: a case of Bugesera District(Mount Kenya University, 2013) Ndagijimana, AlmableThis research was focused on rural electrification as a strategic driver for rural community transformation and development in Rwanda. Rural electrification means the process of bringing electricity to rural areas, thus rural development generally refers to the process of improving the quality of life and economic wellbeing of people living in relatively isolated and sparsely populated areas. This research project tends to correlate community transformation and development to rural electrification. This study reviewed the role of electrification in rural development, the effects of electrification in rural community and challenges Government faces in promoting rural electrification. A conceptual framework for this research was developed, putting under review rural electrification as independent variable and community transformation and development as dependent variable. The respondents in this study are Local citizens, local Leaders, civil society members and CBO/NGOs members. Using the simple random sampling and purposive sampling, a sample of 92 was drawn from the population of 1800 basing on Mauris’ formula for calculating the sample size. Interviews, questionnaires and direct observation was used in data collection where by frequencies, percentages, graphs and tables was used in data presentation and interpretation, data was analyzed using SPSS Software. To achieve the desired objectives of the study, 92 persons received each a questionnaire and all returned back responded. A quantitative element like tables was used to give more meaning to data analysis and interpretation. The findings in this study show that RURAL ELECTRIFICATION plays the great role in Rural Community transformation and Development. As it is demonstrated in table 4.11, first and foremost rural electrification improves income by empowering smalls businesses at the rate of 30.4%. Secondly, it improves quality of education as it enables more hours for revision for students28.3%. Finally, it opens up the community to rest of the world through improved communication 6.5%. As recommendations, the government of Rwanda must enforce the rural electrification via distribution of power lines on a local power grid and mobilizing funds from development partners. There should be more sensitization with different means such as media, awareness messages during community meetings so that people use available electric power to change the livelihood to better by using it to income generating activities exactly with their health status. The results from this study will help the decision makers to know benefit from rural community after getting electricity. PublicationInfant mortality regulation policy and fertility in Rwanda(2009-2013): a case of King Faisal Hospital Maternity Department(Mount Kenya University, 2013) William, KinunuABSTRACT The main goal of this study was to find out the impact of Infant mortality regulation policy on fertility in Rwanda. The specific objectives the study were: To find out the trend of infant mortality rate at King Faisal Hospital Kigali in Rwanda, to examine the factors accelerating infant mortality rate at King Faisal Hospital Kigali in Rwanda and to investigate the strategies to improve the infant survival at king Faisal Hospital Kigali in Rwanda as a means to control fertility. The study will be of great importance to many stakeholders including government, academicians, public hospitals, general public mentioned but a few; as it will add to the existing literature and provide strategies on how to reduce the infant mortality rate as a way of controlling fertility rates in Rwanda. The study adopted a qualitative and quantitative design to illustrate the impact of infant mortality rate on the fertility rate in Rwanda basing on respondents views. It involved a target population of 130 from whom a sample of 97 was selected using the Krejuice and Morgan 1970 table for determining sample size. The study used both primary and secondary data where primary data was collected using structured self-administered questionnaires and secondary data was got from reviewing existing documents about infant mortality and fertility in Rwanda and the world over. The researcher ensured validity and reliability of data collection tools through testing them with few members in a pilot study. Data collected from respondents was edited, coded and put in SPSS computer package for further analysis; Findings indicated that the higher the infant mortality the higher the fertility rate as parents are always scared that due to uncontrolled factors the children may die so they must have a great number of them for insurance against high death rates. It can be said that there have been tremendous changes in infant mortality rate after the introduction of the infant mortality regulation policy with the most desirable trend which was highly ranked by respondents that it has reduced as a result of the proper implementation of the strategies adopted by government and health centers among which KFHK is a referral. It was thus recommended that Rwanda Government through ministry of health and health centers should reinforce on the considerations for sensitization of women to come for antenatal checkups, practices vaccination against early childhood diseases to reduce infant mortality rate and increased affordability to health care services as a way of reducing infant mortality rate and fertility respectively. PublicationEmployee retention strategies and performance of public institutions in Rwanda: a case of Ministry of Public Service and Labor(Mount Kenya University, 2013) Christine, AkimpayeEmployee retention is a critical aspect for every Institution regarding competitive advantage because Human Resource is the most critical asset of today’s modern world. Other resources can be arranged effortlessly but to get efficient and retain talent human Capital is the most difficult task. Therefore, Institution is now more focused towards employee retention. Institution use different Human Resource Strategies for retention as relating to the efforts by which employees attempt to retain employees in their workforce. The purpose of this study is to examine the literature relating to retention of good employees and the role that work life issues have in an employee's decision to stay or leave an organization and how it makes the organization to more perform. This study provides an overview of the key employee turnover literature within the hospitality for those academics researching in this area, with specific attention given to the role of Retention Strategies as issues of turnover. This research also provides a theoretical and practical framework for Public Institution to develop strategies for reduced employee turnover, with a focus on the role that balancing work and family plays in these strategies. The key findings emerging from this literature review focus on job attitudes such as job satisfaction and organizational commitment, personal attributes such as positive and negative affectivity, the role of Employee Retention Strategies reduce turnover and, finally, the strategies provided to alleviate high turnover rates and it shown in improvement in Performance of Public Institution. Recommendations to management are presented for both Governments. These recommendations include the good compensations, Work environment, Employee Relationship, Employee Development, good role models at the workplace, improvement in flexible working conditions, sound recruitment and training opportunities and company family friendly work policies. PublicationHuman capital and firm's financial performance. A Case of Bear Consultant LTD(Mount Kenya University, 2015) Xavier, Kanyarukiko Nkusi FrancoisThis research project examined the impact of human capital on firm’s financial performance taking a case study of BEAR Ltd. The constantly changing business environment requires firms to strive for superior competitive advantages via dynamic business plans which incorporate creativity and innovativeness which in turn is essentially important for their long term financial sustainability. The Theory of Human Capital is rooted in Schultz’s field of macroeconomic development theory and Becker’s classic book titled Human Capital, hence the researcher relied upon. In approaching the subject matter under study, the researcher was guided by the general objective that was to determine the extent to which human capital affects the financial performance and was further split into specific objectives: to determine how the investment in human capital impacts on the company’s financial performance, to determine how specific mediating mechanisms through high performance work force systems can influence the overall performance of BEAR Ltd and to find out the contribution level of Human Capital in financial growth of BEAR Ltd. The problem under study was to find out the production factor share that makes a firm’s growth when putting human capital into the equation. The researcher reviewed literature relating to human capital and its impact on firm’s financial performance, critical review of different authors in different domains such as the economics, human resource and management accountancy. A case study design was used as well as a descriptive approach. The researcher designed questionnaires and distributed them for data collection from 10 employees who occupied senior positions in the management and administration of the company understudy. The analysis revealed success, challenges and the innovativeness in BEAR service production and its impact on performance of the BEAR. The researcher finally showed the research findings relevant, conclusions and recommended that company should also use ratio analysis in the assessment of expenses incurred in relation to sales realized and gross margin obtained for a better control of production cost and other expenses, and areas that would be suggested for further study is the meaning of HC measure at the corporate level because HR practices usually different across business units and facilities within a corporation, particularly as diversification and size increase. PublicationCorporate social responsibility projects and organizational performance in telecommunication companies: a case of projects financed by MTN Rwandacell(Mount Kenya University, 2015) Eric Mbao, KwizeraCompanies worldwide tend to spend significant resources to promote corporate social responsibility projects (CSR). Yet, previous researchers have found no conclusive evidence that such activities lead to any financial benefits for the companies, especially in the less well--‐ developed regions. The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between CSR projects and firm financial performance in the Rwandan Telecommunication Industry, MTN Further, CSR projects are subdivided in five categories (workplace, market place, environment, community and other CSR) to determine which particular CSR categories affect firm financial performance the most. The study has chosen qualitative and quantitative research methods to explore the topic while the analysis used descriptive mean and percentile to rate the importation of CSR projects on financial performance of MTN. A sample of 72 beneficiaries were selected using stratified random sampling method to measure CSR project and regressions are run to determine the relationship between CSR and firm financial performance, approximated by return on assets (ROA). The results will show that on the overall level, CSR projects donator have or have any effect on firm financial performance in the MTN Rwanda cell. However, certain CSR categories will be found to impact ROA. Firstly, market place and environment related CSR projects seem to reduce firm financial performance, but other CSR projects, which are more abstract (e.g. Adherence to CSR standards) increase ROA. We speculate that the notion of CSR has not yet become institutionalized in the Rwandan societies; therefore, in general, people are not ready to pay more for products delivered by social responsibility companies. The existed CSR‟s projects in MTN Rwanda among customers provided significant contribution to the financial performance of MTN whereas findings revealed that the factors ranked to push MTN Rwanda to be engaged in CSR‟s project was first of all to satisfy the customers‟ requirements with result of 55.6 while also satisfying the domestic market with 31.9. the findings also revealed that the contribution of the CSR‟s Projects is insured as long as it directly help to increase Gross and Net Profit margin and finally participate to increase the return on equity, return on investment and return on capital employed.