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    In-service education programmes for secondary school teachers and students’ academic performance a case study of Nyarugenge District, Rwanda
    (Mount Kenya University, 2013) Jean Paul, Harerimana
    students’ academic performance in national examinations during the last five years (2008 - 2012) decre ased in secondary schools in both ordinary and advanced level due to several factors: irregular in - service education programs, unqualified teachers and lack of school facilities. The study concluded that there is an effect of in - service education programs of secondary school teachers on the decreased students’ academic performance in Nyarugenge District. 348 The research recommended that the Ministry of Education should design, support and encourage different types of in - service education programs in secondary schools. The district education office and the school management also were advised to implement at a regular basis less expensive types of in - service education programs in their school s. The successful implementation of in - service education programs should be the benefit to all stakeholders in education and improve the students’ academic performance in national examinations as well as teachers’ performance in secondary schools
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    Ushawishi za nyimbo za kampuni wa jamii ya Wachuka katika kaunti ya Tharaka Nithi, Kenya
    (Mount Kenya University, 2016-11) Ntiba, Onesmus Gitonga
    Tasnifu hii inahusu uhakiki wa usemi wa nyimbo za kampeni za jamii ya Wachuka katika kaunti ya Tharaka Nithi. Nyimbo za kampeni ambazo tumezingatia ni zile zilizokuwa zinaimbwa kati ya 1992-2013. Wachuka ni mojawapo wa makundi ya Wameru wanaozungumza lahaja ya Kichuka. Katika utafiti huu, tumelenga kuangazia jinsi ushawishi wa kisiasa umejengwa kupitia vipashio mbalimbali vya lugha, ujumbe na mitindo anuwai katika nyimbo hizi. Kufanikisha shughuli hii, tumezingatia mtindo changamano unaojumlisha mihimili kutoka Nadharia ya Uchanganuzi Usemi Hakiki na Nadharia ya Umitindo. Data ambayo tumeshughulikia katika utafiti huu tuliipata nyanjani katika tarafa za Chuka, Magumoni na Igambang’ombe katika Kaunti ya Tharaka Nithi. Data hii tuliipata kupitia aina ya rununu iliyokuwa na uwezo wa kupiga picha na kunasa nyimbo tulizokuwa tunaimbiwa na wahojiwa. Kwanza, nyimbo hizi ziliandikwa kwa Kichuka kisha kutafsiriwa kwa Kiswahili.
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    Tasnifu hii imewasilishwa ili kutimiza mahitaji ya shahada ya uzamifu (ph.d) katika kiswahili ya Chuo kikuu cha mount kenya
    (Mount Kenya University, 2016-10) Musembi, Naomi Nzilani
    This study investigated thematic changes in Kamba circumcision songs with the aim of finding out how they change. As the daily lifestyles change, oral literature has consequently been changing. These themes have been categorized into two distinct categories, the pre-colonial and post-colonial period. The two categories highlight two different lifestyles. During the pre-colonial period, the Kamba tradition was stable, and every community function was conducted in accordance to their traditions. During the post-colonial period, lifestyles changed and the Kamba traditions were influenced by the western culture, thereby changing the themes of these songs.The research was carried out at Nzyiitu, Kalimbui, Kaluilaa, Ngalange, Mwangea and Nzanzeni. These villages are found in Kaluilaa sub-location, Tseikuru sub county in Kitui county. The research was conducted in this area because the Kamba people living here still hold on to the practice of circumcision rites in the ever changing society. The research was guided by three theories: The Ethnography of communication whose proponent is Dell Hymes (1974). This theory emanates and inclines on sociolinguistics approach. Ethnography of communication is concerned with people‟s culture, situations, uses of language and its patterns and the functions of speaking. The second theory is the Pragmatics theory as advanced by Levinson (1983) and Horn (1990). Pragmatics theory was useful in this research in analysing the language used in the context of initiation songs, and the users of the language. The third theory which guided this research was Realism theory as advanced by Hegel (1975).This theory stresses on the depiction of contemporary life and society as it exists. To arrive at the above stated aim, thirty Kamba circumcision songs sung in different epochs in history were used as a yardstick of evaluation. Two epochs in history were selected purposively namely, before colonialisation and after colonialisation. These two periods represented other periods in the history of Kenya. Thirty songs were analysed, fifteen from each period. To get background information on the theories used by the study, and the Kamba oral literature, libraries, websitesand archives were visited. By use of participant observations, interviews and discussions, primary data was collected from the 6 sub-locations in Tseikuru Sub County, Kitui County. Using purposive sampling technique, 27 experts on Kamba male initiation songs participated in the study. The recorded data was transcribed from the CD and video cassette in Kikamba followed by literal translation to Kiswahili. The words were interpreted contextually to get the meaning in the change of themes evident in the songs. The change in themes were analysed based on the theories used. This thesis is divided into five chapters. Chapter one introduces the thesis giving background information on the topic of study, objectives and reasons for choosing the topic. It also introduces the theories used in the study. Chapter two deals with literature review. Chapter three explains research methods used in the study. Chapter four analyses the change of themes in the Kamba male circumcision songs, and the changes which the society has undergone between the two periods of study as chapter five concludes the study by giving recommendations based on the findings
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    Uundaji, udumishaji na mabadiliko ya leksimu katika Sheng’ ya Matatu
    (Mount Kenya University, 2016-11) Kung'u Kihara David
    This study is a textual analysis of Sheng’ used in the matatu business in Kenya, a business that is prevalent all over the country. This research concentrated on Nairobi, its environs and Thika where Sheng’ use is common. The texts were analysed to show lexicalization, institutionalization and deinstitutionalization of matatu Sheng’. The aim was to expound on word formation in Sheng’used in public service vehicles, how the new lexical items are institutionalized and some are later dropped from the Sheng’ used in public service vehicles lexicon thus becoming deinstitutionalized. Primary data consisted of spoken, written texts and interviews in the matatu plying the Thika-Nairobi route as well as selected routes which includes Githurai, Dandora, Mathare, Kariobangi, Shauri Moyo, Mbotela, Jericho, Maringo, Eastleigh and Buruburu. The researcher and research assistants listened to utterances and interviewed the matatu crew and the passengers of the sampled matatus. The researcher also recorded the written texts displayed in the matatu. Guided by the lexical semantics theory, notably the tenets of lexicalization, institutionalization and deinstitutionalization as advanced by Lipka (1990), the researcher analysed the data collected from the field. The research identifies different methods of word formation in Sheng’ used in public service vehicles. The research has dealt with lexicalization, institutionalization and de-institutionalization in Sheng’ used in public service vehicles without investigating the effects of institutionalization and de-institutionalization of this variety of Sheng’. The researcher traced the origin of Sheng’ in reference to different authors. It has been discovered that Sheng’ is used in different contexts in communication including advertisements and Matatu transport. A short history of Lexical Semantic Theory has been addressed including the concepts of lexicalization, institutionalization and deinstitutionalization which were investigated in this research in reference to Lipka (1990, 1992, 2000, 2002, and Lipka & Falkner (2004). The research report has been presented in form of tables and descriptive data analysis. The research identifies different methods of word formation in Sheng’ used in public service vehicles. The methods includes, borrowing and adaptation, truncation and reversing of syllables, prefixation, derivation, coining, onomatopoeia and semantic expansion.
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    An investigation on the influence of school staffing on Learners’ academic performance in secondary schools in Keiyo South Sub-county, Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya
    (Mount Kenya University, 2016-08) Kimeli,Jelagat
    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of school staffing on learners’ academic performance in secondary schools in Keiyo South Sub-County.The study sought to achieve the following objectives: to find out the influence of teacher/student ratio on academic performance, to determine the influence of teachers work load on learners academic performance, to establish the influence of teachers’ training on learners academic performance and to determine the influence of teachers subject specialization on learners academic performance. The study used production function theory by Hanushek (2007) and Administrative theory by Galabawa (1990). The study adopted cross-sectional research design by use of concurrent mixed methodology. The target population for the study was 31 principals and 347 teachers. Stratified simple random sampling and purposive sampling method was used to select the respondents’ teachers and principals respectively. This implies that 31 head teachers and 182 teachers participated in this study. The validity of research instruments was ascertained by indepth discussion with the expert judgement before proceeding to the field. Reliability of the instruments was also ascertained through test-retest method at an interval of two weeks to respondents who did not participate in the actual study. Credibility of Research Instruments was attained by triangulation method where information was collected from principals and teachers. Dependability of instruments was attained when the researcher reported in detail to enable an external researcher to repeat and achieve similar results. Piloting of research was carried out in Keiyo North Sub-county where the researcher selected 10 principals and 20 teachers. Data was collected using questionnaires and interview schedules. The quantitative and qualitative data collected was collected and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics; Descriptive statistics involved the use of frequencies and percentages while inferential statistics involved the use of Pearson Correlation Analysis and the qualitative data was analyzed thematically and presented in narrative form. The study concluded that a majority of teachers believed that smaller classes in secondary schools could enhance students’ academic performance. It further emerged that there was a statistically negative significant relationship between teacher/student ratio and students’ academic performance in secondary schools. In addition, majority of the teachers believed that reducing teachers’ workload could enhance students’ academic performance. Similarly, there was a statistically significant and negative relationship between teachers’ workload and students’ academic performance in secondary schools. The study findings further showed that a majority of teachers believed that effectiveness of teachers in handling students positively enhances students’ academic achievement. The study further showed that there was a significant and positive relationship between teachers’ training and students’ academic performance in secondary schools. Similarly, majority of the teachers believed that employment of more trained BOM teachers with required subject specialization could ease teachers’ workload and improve on students’ academic performance. The study recommended that there is need for TSC to increase the number of teachers in secondary schools to reduce teachers’ workload since high teachers’ workload translates to ineffective teaching leading to poor students’ academic performance. In addition, there is need for teachers to be provided with in-service training in subject areas to boost learners academic performance.
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    An exploration of stakeholders’ collaboration in the management of conflict in secondary schools in Narok county, Kenya.
    (Mount Kenya University, 2016-10) Ogochi, George
    Collaboration by all stakeholders in education could drastically reduce conflicts being continuously witnessed in the education sector in Kenya. These conflicts have led to undesirable results like teachers‟ strikes, sit-ins, go-slows, students‟ unrests among others. Thus the main purpose of this study was to explore stakeholders‟ collaboration in conflict management in secondary schools in Narok County, Kenya. The objectives of the study were to establish the frequency of peace building meetings and their effect in conflict management in secondary schools in Narok County, explore the role of litigation in conflict management in secondary schools, determine how mediation contributes to conflict management in secondary schools, establish the contribution of negotiation on conflict management in secondary schools in Narok County and determine the role of arbitration on conflict management in secondary schools in Narok County. The study was guided by the Stakeholders‟ theory and Interest-based Relational Approach. The study adopted the mixed methodology and an exploratory design. A sample of 467 respondents were selected from the population who included: secondary school principals, teachers, students, BOM members, PA officials, sponsors, ministry of Education officials, teachers unions‟ representatives and TSC officials in Narok County. Stratified random sampling was used to select the respondents in the study. Purposeful sampling was used to select principals, BOM, PA and sponsors from the schools sampled. Validity was established by requesting two supervisors and other experts to indicate whether each item in the research tools was relevant or not. The calculated validity index was 0.76 making the instruments valid since it is more than 0.7 threshold. Reliability was established by use of Test-Retest method and trustworthiness through dependability and reliability. The research tools were piloted in two schools not included in the study but with similar characteristics with the target population. Data collection method involved use of questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions. Data analysis was facilitated by use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. Descriptive statistics in form of frequency distribution, percentages, means and standard deviations were used and data presented in form of graphs and tables. Inferential statistics was in form of Pearson‟s product moment correlation coefficient, ANOVA, Regression Analysis and Chi-square test. Thematic content analysis was used for qualitative data. The results were analysed, discussed and recommendations made. This study revealed that negotiation and mediation had the highest approval by stakeholders. Litigation was not preferred as method of conflict management. This study, therefore, concludes that stakeholders‟ involvement in conflict management brings about better results that are able to create stability and cohesion among stakeholders in schools. It is therefore recommended that peace building, negotiation and mediation be utilized first in conflict management.
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    Effectiveness of psychosocial support services on prevention of obstetric fistula recurrence among recovering survivors in selected counties in Kenya
    (Mount Kenya University, 2016-10) Mohamed, Habiba Corodhia
    Obstetric fistula is a childbirth injury associated with prolonged obstruction of labour leaving a woman incontinent of urine, stool or both. The condition is associated with stigma associated with the zing courage and resilience, many others succumb to illness and despair. The estimated 3000 new fistula cases recorded in Kenya every year presents significant implications for reproductive health practice. Awareness efforts by organisations dealing with fistula survivors has led to a better treatment response. However, fistula recurrence among survivors remains a challenge. In addition, little research has been done on the factors associated with recurrence. This research set out to bridge this knowledge gap by studying the fistula recurrence among survivors in selected counties in Kenya with special emphasis on the role of psychosocial support services. To achieve this, the study was guided by five objectives: to explore the significant contributing factors of fistula recurrence among fistula survivors; to determine if there were differences in levels of psycho-education between the recurring and non-recurring fistula survivors; to determine the significant differences in the level of counselling services between recurring and non-recurring survivors; to find out the significant differences in the levels of community involvement in fistula interventions between recurring and non-recurring fistula survivors; and to explore significant possible alternative intervention measures for prevention of recurrence among fistula survivors. The study utilized mixed research methods (quantitative and qualitative approaches), which embraced post facto survey design. The target population was 470 fistula survivors aged 15 - 50 years from selected counties in Kenya. Purposive sampling was utilised to choose a final sample of 248 fistula survivors, 8 Key informants, and 6 focus group discussions. The data was collected using questionnaires, focus group discussion guides, and interviews. The data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics by mean of statistical tools with the aid of SPSS version 22. The study registered a response rate of 98.8% and an alpha test-retest reliability coefficient of 0.82 which were considered reliable. The significant factors contributing to fistula recurrence were age, marital status, the number of births, and multiple fistula recurrence. The study found that the psycho-education, counselling as well as family and community involvement before the first treatment significantly affected fistula recurrence. Possible alternative measures were also identified as ways to prevent fistula recurrence. The study recommended post repair follow up for all the repaired fistula clients, post repair services to target all the fistula clients irrespective of their level of education and more attention to be given to clients who suffer from both vesico- vagina Fistula (VVF) and Rectovaginal Fistula (RVF). Finding from this study could be helpful to organisations dealing with fistula survivors and other interested bodies. The fistula survivors themselves could also benefit from data generated in this research with regard to self-care.
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    Library management practices in the provision of library services in tertiary institutions within Eldoret town, Uasi Gishu County, Kenya
    (Mount Kenya University, 2016-08) Chebii, Charles Kibet
    This study set out to assess the effectiveness of the library management practices in the provision of library services in tertiary institutions in Eldoret town, Uasin Gishu County. The provision of library services in tertiary institutions is characterized by inadequate resources in terms of funds, information materials, equipment and staff. Libraries play a role in the teaching, research and learning activities. The libraries are not effectively providing services which have limited their role in research and learning. The enrolment in tertiary institutions has gone up while the library facilities have not increased proportionately. The introduction of information technology has not been embraced by many library users. The objectives of the study are: To assess the adequacy of the library materials in the provision of library services in tertiary institutions, to examine the staffing levels of libraries in tertiary institutions and its importance in the provision of library services, to assess the funding of libraries in tertiary institutions and the role it plays in the provision of library services, and to find out the level of the application of information technology in the provision of library services in tertiary institutions in Eldoret town. The research questions are: How adequate are the library materials in the provision of the library services in tertiary institutions? What is the staffing level of libraries and their importance in the provision of the library services in tertiary institutions? Do the libraries get sufficient funding in tertiary institutions? What is the level of application of information technology in the provision of the library services in the college libraries? The study employed both quantitative and qualitative research methodology and adopted survey research design to gather information from the college lecturers, librarians and students. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the librarians. Stratified and random sampling was used to select the sample for the lecturers and the students. The research instruments used are questionnaires and interviews. The interview was conducted with the librarians while the questionnaires were administered to the lecturers and the students. The study was guided by the Mellon’s theory of library anxiety of 1986. This theory was used to describe the response of students to library research. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics which included frequency counts and percentages. The research findings are expected to assist college management to understand the standard of the library services available and how to improve them. It was also to assist the Ministry of Higher Education to formulate policies regarding the standard of libraries required in tertiary institutions in the country.
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    An assessment of influence of inclusive education management on performance of learners with disabilities in regular primary schools in Sabatia Sub-county, Kenya.
    (Mount Kenya University, 2016-11) Asirigwa, Linnet Kavugwi
    The purpose of this study was to assess influence of inclusive education management on performance of learners with disabilities in regular primary schools in Sabatia Sub County, Kenya. Learners with special needs should be integrated in regular schools. However, schools face challenges in implementation of inclusive education. The objectives of the study were: identification and assessment of learners with special needs enrolment rate effect on their performance in regular primary schools; assess the availability of teaching/learning resources management effect on performance learners with disabilities in Sabatia, establish the attitude of the school managers effect on performance of learners with disabilities in Sabatia, and to ascertain the curriculum management effect on performance of learners with disability in regular primary schools. The study was necessary for handling special needs education and benefited education stakeholders as well as adding to the body of knowledge in this field. The study used inclusive management theory, and production function input output model theory. The study method used was mixed methodology and the design was concurrent triangulation. The target population was 226 which consisted of 105 head teachers, 105 teachers and 16 education officers. The sample was 48 participants composed of 22 head teachers, 22 teachers and 4 education officers. Sample was from 105 schools, composed of 98 public schools and 7 private schools and systematic random sampling was employed. Interval of selecting the school was 4th value that was 20 per cent considered. Data instruments used were questionnaires for teachers and interview schedule for education officers. Piloting was done in three schools involving 10 participants who were not included in the study. The validity of the instruments was ascertained by the supervisor and two other lecturers who gave verdict on their suitability. The reliability was verified by using the test retest method whereby Pearson correlation was 0.80. To establish credibility the researcher used triangulation of data. Dependability was achieved by use of in-depth interview of the participants. Quantitative data was presented in descriptive statistics using tables, means, standard deviation, and percentages. Inferential statistics was used whereby Pearson, chisquare and ANOVA were used in SPSS Version 22. Qualitative data was treated in thematic analysis and mixing of all data collected was done. Ethical issues were observed by clearance with Mount Kenya University and permit from NACOSTI and official letters from the County Director of Education and the District Education Officer. The participants signed informed consent forms. Findings revealed that the most frequent special needs categories reported by teachers were learning difficulties, hearing impairments and health problems. There were inadequate teaching and learning materials for learners with special needs. Study findings also revealed that more than three quarters of the teachers held positive attitude towards LSN. It was recommended more teacher collaboration time and overall school plan for ongoing progress on how inclusion should take place in school systems. The study concluded that regular primary schools in Sabatia were ill prepared to effectively implement inclusive education. The study recommended that teachers should be trained to identify and handle LSN. The Ministry of Education should increase Free Primary Education funds so that schools’ can cater for the availability and adequacy of teaching/learning resources. Further research was recommended using a wider target and sample to address these challenges.
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    Head teachers’ leadership styles and teachers’ commitment in Rwandan boarding secondary schools A case study of Nyamagabe District
    (Mount Kenya University, 2015) Faustin, Niyitegeka
    This study examined the relationships between head teachers’ leadership styles and teachers’ Commitment in Rwandan boarding secondary schools (A case study of Nyamagabe District). The research was guided by four objectives which were : to evaluate the impact of head teachers 'leadership styles (Directive, supportive, participative and achievement-oriented styles) on teachers’ commitment in selected boarding secondary schools of Nyamagabe District. The target population of this research was 165 teachers from boarding schools and 7 head teachers. Secondary school teachers as participants of this study were sampled from the target population excluding head teachers who participated all without sampling. Alain’s formula : n=no/1+no/N was used to find the sample size for this study and the later adopted a descriptive correlational design which used questionnaires and related written documents as instruments of data collection. The findings were presented using charts and tables, the researcher also used research questions in order to test the objectives, with a view of coming up with general conclusions and recommendations. The study showed that different leadership styles are used as follow: directive leadership style at 79%, supportive leadership style at 84%, participative leadership style at 86% and lastly the achievement-oriented leadership style at 85%. The study also revealed that there is a strong positive correlation between two variables that are the leadership styles and boarding secondary teachers’ commitment in Nyamagabe District. The researcher recommended the Ministry of education in collaboration with REB to think big about teachers’ commitment for better quality of education. The ministry of education in collaboration with REB should also strengthen teachers’ management department so that they may have regular statistics about teachers who quit education for better jobs so as to check reasons behind and find solutions. Finally, Head teachers should be trained in school leadership in order to help them facilitate teachers in performing their demanding tasks and contribute to their commitment. Suggestions for further research are the following: Teachers’ commitment and pupils’ performance in Secondary Schools of Rwanda, Leadership styles and teachers’ commitment in urban Schools of Rwanda and Monthly salary and secondary school teachers’ commitment.
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    In- service training programmes and Head Teachers managerial skills in Rwanda: A case study of secondary schools in Karongi District
    (Mount Kenya University, 2014) Innocent, Hakizimana
    The in- service training is one of the cornerstones regarding continued professional development in any organization. In the education sector, adequate in- service training probably contributes more than any other factor to the successful performance of head teachers, particularly those who became school leaders by practice rather than by training. The objectives of the study were threefold: First, it sought to identify the in-service training programmes carried out between 2008/2009 - 2013 for head teachers in secondary schools in Karongi District- Rwanda; then assess the impact of those in-service training programmes in empowering head teachers‟ managerial skills in secondary schools in Karongi District; and finally investigate the strategies to be considered for the improvement of further practices of the in-service training programmes in secondary schools. This research was highly needed in order to critically analyse the role of the in-service training programmes reserved for secondary schools‟ head teachers in Rwanda as well as the ways of improving these programmes for further practices. The research design of this study concerned with descriptive study where the case study was used. The sample size included 42 secondary schools head teachers (72.4 % of the total population) taken as direct target population. But the researcher judged better to include 319 teachers from selected schools (57.3 % of the total) as the beneficiaries of head teachers‟ managerial skills and 10 Sector Education Officers (SEOs) out of 12 together with the District Education Officer (DEO) as the first line supervisors of the head teachers at the District level. To select the sample size from the total respondents, the researcher used stratified sampling. To collect needed data, questionnaires were used for both head teachers and teachers while semi- structured interview was conducted for the SEOs with the DEO. The researcher ensured the validity of these tools by presenting them to senior researchers in and out of MKU for their adjustments where needed before being used. The results of this study showed that major INSET programmes carried out for head teachers in Karongi District dealt with school management, ICT, Unity and reconciliation, and English language in which head teachers participated on the overall rate that exceeds 70 % . In addition, those INSET programmes, as the research revealed, enhanced major managerial skills for head teachers such as human and communication skills, financial, supplying, time management, technical, and computer skills. The study also pointed out viable strategies as proposed by the respondents and these include the INSET policy and plans that integrate views from all concerned people, team work spirit for all involved individuals during the INSET design, implementation and evaluation, and sensitizing educational stakeholders on their part in supporting the INSET programmes. Finally, a number of recommendations were formulated and addressed to educational planners and managers, training organisers and beneficiaries. The most highlighted ones focused on a Long- Term Master plan of in-service training, providing articulated trainings, and sensitizing all education partners to support in-service training initiatives.
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    Peer collaboration and teacher performance in selected schools of Kicukiro District
    (Mount Kenya University, 2014) Désiré, Munyemana
    Peer collaboration approach among teachers is the strategy that is considered as impetus for teacher performance. The collaboration is realized through different teams within the school where teachers are grouped into teams and associations through which they learn from one another. The purpose of this study is to assess practices through which teachers learn from one another for effective teacher performance. The objectives that guided the study include establishing the relationship between peer collaboration and teacher performance, determining the characteristics of collaboration among teachers, assessing the practices that engage teachers in collaboration, assessing the teacher performance, purposive sampling technique and simple random sampling technique were used for the study; whereby Headmasters, Deputy Head teachers in charge of studies, head of departments were selected purposively, given their strategic positions in the management of the schools, and teachers selected using simple random sampling technique. A sample used for the study was of 62 respondents constituted by 58 teachers, two Deputy Head teachers in charge of studies and two Head teachers. Data were collected using questionnaires and interviews. Collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Microsoft Office Excel. After data analysis, the results were presented in tables, figures for accurate interpretation. From research findings it has been noticed that respondents have considerable knowledge of characteristics of collaboration as the first step in implementing and sustaining school collaboration culture among teachers where the raising of awareness of teachers on characteristics of collaboration needs to be reinforced. The practices that reinforce the collaboration among teachers are not exploited by teachers effectively to enable them to learn from one another as it contributes to teachers’ performance. Finally, teachers have acquired different skills from their peers by visiting their fellow teachers while teaching, through departments’ discussions and peer review from fellow teachers during the training organized by different partners in education to enable them improve their current teaching practices. The relationship between peer collaboration on teacher performance has been established where peer collaboration was taken as impetus for teacher performance. Therefore, the research recommends teachers to be active learners from peers by breaking the walls of working in their isolated classrooms. The school Head teachers should set clear school vision for learning and share it with school community members, build system structures that enable school community members to work collaboratively to achieve the school vision and provide constant support for sustainability of school collaboration culture. The educational planners and policy makers should support and encourage initiatives of schools that contribute to the school based In-service teacher training as a cost-effective way of Continuous Professional Development of teachers.
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    Involvement of teachers in school management and students’ academic performance: a case study of Ngoma District, Rwanda
    (Mount Kenya University, 2014) Gachuhi Ngiria, Geoffrey
    Involvement of teachers in school management is an aspect of creating an environment in which teachers can be consulted on decisions and actions that affect their job. Many scholars are in agreement that individuals who participate in decision making are more satisfied with the decision they make collectively leading to high performance in their organizations. The study was therefore intended to establish how teachers are involved in management of public primary schools in Rwanda. The Specific objectives of the study were to investigate how teachers were involved in planning and management of schools to achieve academic performance, To identify some of the challenges encountered during involvement of teachers in management of schools and to suggest best practices on how teachers can be involved in school management as a way of achieving good academic performance in Ngoma district. The study was important to the researcher to assist him master knowledge on the existing literature on involvement of teachers in management of schools, to provide richness to underpin the inputs of teachers in school management as well as making a theoretical contribution to the body of knowledge related to management of schools .The study targeted all 45 public primary schools in the district, as well as the DEO,14 SEOs, 45 head teachers and 820 public primary school teachers in Ngoma district who were in charge of 73,512 students. Both quantitative and qualitative research designs were used. Random sampling was used to select teachers while census was applied for the rest of the respondents to ensure representativeness and authenticity of the data. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. Descriptive data analysis, frequency distribution tables, inferential statistics involving percentages, correlations and frequencies were used in data analysis. A survey was carried out to check how teachers were involved in management of schools, the challenges encountered and best practices put in place to involve teachers in school management to acquire quality results. Questionnaires were administered to teachers, while interviews were conducted to the key informants such as the DEO, SEOs and the head teachers. Most teachers in the study felt that they should be involved in management in major areas in their schools. The study revealed that teachers were not fully involved in management in the core areas. Reasons why teachers were not willing to participate effectively in decision making included witch hunting, victimization, divisions among staff members, fear and double standards by head teachers. They mentioned ways that could enable them to fully participate in decision making which included: delegation of duties, team building, empowerment, motivation, collective setting of standards, avoiding witch-hunting, open administration and being involved throughout the decision making processes. As part of recommendations, school administration and management should be made a key component of training programs in teachers’ colleges in Rwanda. The curriculum should include courses such as decision making, financial management, supervision and personnel management among other areas.
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    Educational planning and learners academic performance in Public Secondary Schools A case study of Musanze District, Rwanda
    (Mount Kenya University, 2013) Cyprien, Sikubwabo
    This study was carried out to examine the impact of educational planning on learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools of Musanze District. Specifically, the study sought to investigate the state of educational planning in the schools from 2010 to 2012. A sample of 35 Headmasters and 35 Academic Masters from 35 public secondary schools of Musanze District was used in this study.The study was guided by the following research questions: (1) What are the characteristics of educational planning in public secondary schools of Musanze District from 2010 to 2012? (2) What are the activities undertaken by the schools aiming at improving students’ academic performance from 2010 to 2012? (3) What are the problems of planning in public secondary schools of Musanze District from 2010 to 2012? (4) What is the state of students’ academic performance in public secondary school of Musanze District from 2010 to 2012? This study used a comparative descriptive research design and a purposive sample to collect and analyze the data. After the data had been collected, it was analyzed using simple statistical techniques (frequency, percentages). By means of the information about learners’ academic performance from 2010 to 2012 in Musanze District public secondary schools as well as some characteristics of educational planning in the schools, the researcher established whether there is impact of educational planning on learners’ academic performance. Likewise, after making comparison between learners’ academic performance in Musanze district public secondary schools and some aspects of school plans (school budget and realization of planned actions), the study revealed that educational planning affects learners’ academic performance in Musanze District public secondary schools. The study recommends that the Ministry of education should help public secondary schools to make effective plans through the provision of regular in-service trainings on educational planning and through the provision of the documents about educational planning to the secondary schools’ managers. The study also recommended that the government should provide the capitation grants to the secondary schools on time so as to enable them to realize their planned actions successfully.
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    Monitoring and evaluation practices towards academic staff motivation A case study of Kigali Institute of Education
    (Mount Kenya University, 2013) Niyivuga, Boniface
    This study sought to determine the relationship between monitoring and evaluation practices and academic staff motivation in higher education, case of Kigali Institute of Education (KIE). The study employed a survey research method to collect data from academic staff of KIE. The research was guided by two objectives aiming at determining the monitoring and evaluation practices applied at KIE; and determining the relationship between monitoring and evaluation practices and staff motivation. The job content theoretical framework guided this study, with reference to the job characteristic model which assumes that autonomy and control over work, as well as feedback and recognition, increase employee motivation. The concepts in this study have been operationalized and measured using existing scales. A total of 123 (69.1%) staff was sampled out of a population of 178 academic staff at KIE. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were used to measure the research variables. The study established that monitoring and evaluation practices, including staff self-evaluation, students-staff evaluation, peer evaluation, and Evaluation by supervisor, are applied at varying emphasis. Furthermore, both the supervisees and supervisors agreed that the quality of feedback is fairly effective, while the recognition was found to be not well expressed. Significant correlations ranging from 0.268 to 0.4460 at 0.01 level were found between Monitoring and Evaluation Practices statements and Motivational Impact of Monitoring and Evaluation statements; while the significant correlations ranging from .262 to .631 at 0.01 level were also found between Perceptions towards Quality of Feedback statements and Motivational Impact of Monitoring and Evaluation statements, both suggesting a weak to moderate relationship between variables of the study. The findings of the study were therefore found consistent with previous researches findings. In conclusion, the study established that monitoring and evaluation at Kigali Institute of Education is applied under various approaches, and the M&E practices together with the subsequent feedback have the ability to stimulate staff motivation if applied effectively by the supervisors. Recommendations for future studies would be to replicate the study using different cases, sample size, and selection strategy.
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    Leadership Styles as tools for teacher Job Satisfaction A Case Study of Secondary Schools in Muhanga District
    (Mount Kenya University, 2013) Tuyishime, Dieudonne
    District. The research was guided by three objectives: first, to investigate the level of leadership styles and the level of job satisfaction among the teachers in secondary schools in Muhanga District; second, to assess the influence of leadership styles employed by head teachers and the level of satisfaction of teachers in secondary schools of Muhanga District and third, to identify the challenges encountered by head teachers in performing their leadership. The population of this study was composed of 930 head teachers and teaching staff in secondary schools of Muhanga District. A sample of 274 teachers and 24 head teachers was used and data was collected through questionnaire and interview. The findings indicate that autocratic, democratic and situational leadership are highly used as it is shown by their respective Grand Means (2.59; 2.70; 2.70) while the laisser-faire leadership style is used fairly frequently as it is indicated by its 2.45 Grand Mean. Teachers reported a relatively high level of job satisfaction (with a Grand Mean of 2.96), however the age group expressing the highest level of dissatisfaction is the new generation of teachers aged 20-29. Democratic leadership style has been found a good leadership to promote satisfaction with r varying from .350 to .549. Situational leadership style promotes satisfaction among teachers but generally, findings indicate a weak correlations starting from 0.084 to .471. Teachers are also satisfied with the laisser-faire leadership style (.222 to .451). Head teachers are therefore recommended to use democratic leadership style which was revealed by the study to produce more satisfaction than others. Findings revealed that teachers are not satisfied with the use of autocratic leadership style (-.431 to -.214). This study also revealed a number of challenges encountered by head teachers in performing leadership. The main challenge is the lack of training about leadership for those who are appointed as school heads. The study recommends that a specialized management and leadership training course be designed for teachers aspiring to become head teachers in secondary schools.