Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 41
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    (Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance, 2016) Achieng, Arogo Phyllis; Omuya, Jacqueline
    There has been growing concerns about the fact that African media has failed to commit itself to ensuring that the gender question becomes a standard of measure for press freedom and access to information on the continent. The use of the female body as a mere decoration or as an attention-getting device diminishes women's self-esteem and ignores other aspects of women's personality, their human potential and contributions to economic empowerment for development. Women are underrepresented in political, social and economic reporting; this results in limiting the freedom of expression caused by self-censorship by a male dominated industry. It is a cause of concern on the portrayal of women in household-related roles, mostly in advertisements for household products, particularly because of the repetitiousness of the housewife image. The media does not fully recognize the dynamism that women display in the economic, cultural and social lives of their communities through their associations and informal networks channeled into creating new models of participation and leadership. This paper therefore explores the need for positive women access and use of the media for economic empowerment in Africa; it examines the challenges facing the portrayal of women in the media and makes recommendations on how increase women's representation in decision-making structures in media houses and develop structures and frameworks for gender mainstreaming based on laws and policies for sustained economic empowerment of women. This paper explores secondary data from text books, and journals to conclude that, without meaningful commitment in the form of policy changes and the provision of resources to address women conditions and involvement in the media representation; Africa cannot hope to see a breakthrough in its development and renewal. It recommends that, greater awareness and supportive environment needs to be enhanced by the media for women to be more self-reflective and have a greater awareness of their own weaknesses, challenges, strengths and opportunities. Women should be exposed to more in-depth training and development to gain not only knowledge and skills but also wisdom in order to be authentic leaders with integrity. Also, there should be is an urgent need to increase the knowledge and ability of mass media professionals to create more awareness on gender issues
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    Improve Supply Chains for Economic Recovery
    (Mount Kenya University, 2020) Collins, Musyoka
    During this period of COVID – 2019 all industries that contribute to the country economic growth e.g manufacturing sector, agricultural sector, health sector is experiencing supply chain vulnerability. In the health sector for instance we have seen the government move swiftly to source for health care equipment e.g PPEs, Ventilators, testing reagents and testing apparatus. The horticulture industry has not been left behind since no much business is going on in our export countries such as Europe due to the lockdown to contain the spread of COVID – 19. Still there is no inter - county trading in Kenya because of partial lockdown as one of the major mitigating measures to contain the COVID – 19 in the country. This also has led to many job losses in the country
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    Improve Post-Harvest Practices for Food Security
    (Mount Kenya University, 2020) Collins, Musyoka
    The agricultural sector is a key pillar of Kenya’s economy. According to the recent Food Security Report by Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, the sector directly contributes 24% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 27% of GDP indirectly through manufacturing and distribution. Around 45% of Government income comes from the agricultural sector and it contributes more than 75% of raw materials and over 50% of the export gains. The sector is the leading employer contributing about 60 per cent of the total employment. Above 80% of the population, largely those living in rural areas, mostly obtain their livelihoods from agricultural related activities
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    Ethics and Governance in Supply Chain Management for Economic Development
    (Mount Kenya University, 2020) Collins, Musyoka
    Supply chain management is experiencing lack of direction, poor coordination and unfair competition, transparency and accountability as well as fraud in the public sector, consequently lack of qualified supply chain management specialists to perform and carry out supply chains activities competently, at the right time and cost-effectively has negatively affected the performance of supply chain in the public institutions. In addition to inflexible and bureaucratic delays, increased and exaggerated costs, as well as irregular procurement activities in public institutions, create a loophole to fraud public resources
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    Fostering Entrepreneurship in the University Context – Promotion of International Entrepreneurship
    (2018) Dornberger, Utz
    Small and medium sized enterprises (SME) are the driving force behind all economies. Their importance can be observed in the German economy where 99% of all enterprises fall under the classification of SME. At the same time more than 60% of all jobs originate from SME. In order to promote such an important economic factor, many funding opportunities and trainings are available. Especially Universities and other higher education institutions have been focusing on the establishment of entrepreneurship education in order to stimulate the start-up scene. But in a global business environment, where customers and competitors are no longer bound to national borders, internationalization capabilities play an important role for decision makers in companies. Globalization and international business relations come with both tremendous chances and risks for SME. Accessing new markets offers new opportunities that are often associated with increasing competitive pressure. Experience has shown that enterprises are learning through trial and error approaches when entering foreign markets. The goal should be to transfer the experience from successful start-up promotion to a support system that supports the internationalization activities of companies. On the basis of the FIT4export program, the International SEPT Program serves as a sparring partner that accompanies and supports SME in all phases of the internationalization process. This mission facilitates regional economic development and strengthens the competitiveness of the private sector. Similar to business incubators new ideas, products and business models shall be developed and tested under a protective atmosphere up to a point that allows successful internationalization of companies
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    The Role of Entrepreneurial Education in Reinforcing Entrepreneurial Intentions among University Graduates in Ethiopia: Determinants and Prospect
    (Mount Kenya University, 2015) Tujo, Daniel Beyera; Olana, Gemechu Waktola; Ababa, Bamrot Yekoye
    Examination of theory, history, and practices of entrepreneurship education (EE) strongly suggest that EE is believed to have a potential to create strong entrepreneurial intention or may offer entrepreneurship as a career choice among the students. The study involved pre-test and post-test of entrepreneurial intentions of students with the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Out of 400 questionnaires distributed among students from Adama Science &Technology University and Admas University, 336 questionnaires were fully filled and used for analysis. The items were built as seven-point Likert type scale, being 1 “Strongly disagrees” and 7 “Strongly agree.” The internal consistency of the instrument was well above the cutoff point of 0.7 (Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.86). The analysis of the finding involved use of descriptive statistics measures and T-test supported by SPSS. Similarly, the aggregate results of comparison of pre and post intention measures clearly confirm that there is no significant intention change observed among respondents after taking the course with few exceptions. The attitudes towards entrepreneurship even before taking the course were moderately high. However, the overall T test result value after taking the course entrepreneurial intention remained unchanged except with very slight variation observed among female students; students with prior business experiences; and students who come from families who own and run businesses. Although the overall impression indicate that most students positively considered entrepreneurship as career option; the majority of the student have no immediate intention to pursue entrepreneurship as most preferred career option immediately after their graduation. In sum, the current course offering for students in both Universities may not bring about intended change in entrepreneurial intention. This might suggest it is worthy to examine whether entrepreneurship education practices in Ethiopian Universities educate about entrepreneurship and enterprise rather than educating for entrepreneurship; whether the curricula, the teaching methods are really in tune with the desired objective of offering the course.
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    Opportunities for Corporate Sponsorship and Partnership in Sport in East Africa
    (Mount Kenya University, 2018) Soita, Paschal W.; Wanderi, Mwangi Peter; Andanje, Joseph M.
    Corporate sponsorship is a form of advertising in which companies pay to be associated with certain events. It has been growing worldwide outpacing the traditional components of the typical integrated marketing communications. In East Africa a number of small and medium sized firms have often got involved. The business environment has allowed such companies to embrace sponsorship of everything from local soccer clubs, volleyball teams to marathon and festivals as an effective means of increasing their visibility in various communities. Sponsorship comes along with potential benefits: increase in public profile; enhance a company’s image and visibility; strategically it can boost sales—both long-term and short-term. Many sponsors in Uganda and Kenya have in recent times assumed a more visible role within the sports environment. However many sports organizations have not been able to identify, recruit, and retain such sponsors. This has had consequences on team preparations, training, provision of kits, and consequently poor performance of individuals and teams at various levels. In this paper, the African Sport Management Association (ASMA) presents a preliminary report on the status of sport corporate sponsorship and gives a narrative of opportunities still available in both Kenya and Uganda.
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    University Partnerships to Promote Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Start-Ups: Lessons from an International Survey of Case Studies
    (Mount Kenya University, 2015) Adu-Gyamfi, Richard; Kwarteng, Prince Oppong; Matambalya, Francis; Dornberger, Utz
    Small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) promotion is a viable strategy to facilitate sustainable growth and development in developing countries. In this connection, university partnerships have been playing an increasingly important role in SME promotion, for instance by supporting business start-ups in both developed and developing countries. Concrete interventions have been in the forms of entrepreneurship education and training, and University-based incubators. Through knowledge sharing, the partnerships have increased the knowledge base of participating universities, thereby enabling them to execute their SME promotion agenda more efficiently. This paper revisits the experience of selected university partnerships, in order to identify lessons that can be emulated by existing and planned partnerships to promote SME start-ups in Sub-Saharan African countries
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    Inclusive Business Development in East-Africa - Ways of Creating Enabling Environment
    (Mount Kenya University, 2015) Linna, Paula
    In the paper we discuss on the role of inclusive business development in Africa. Inclusive business, as a feature of inclusive market development represents a promising approach of bringing the benefits of economic growth directly to low-income communities by including them within value chains for instance as customers, producers or co-creators. Therefore, inclusive business models, because they include poor people as business partners along the value chain, can contribute towards meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). To be successful and grow, inclusive business models often rely on other players that provide conducive policies; know-how and awareness; finance; and complementary capabilities. The more concrete research topic is how to create enabling environment for inclusive business development. We view the roles of different actors, such as governmental actors, NGOs, research and financial institutions and how they are (or could be) collaborating to create a better base for inclusive business. As a result, we identify possible roles and raise essential questions for different stakeholders to consider if they want to be part of inclusive business development. The paper is a theoretical paper which is illustrated with few successful Africa case examples of inclusive business models.
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    Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development Centres in African Universities: What should their Role be?
    (Mount Kenya University, 2015) Joubert, Patricia N.; Rosa, Peter J.; Wanderi, Mwangi P.
    There has been a considerable growth in University Entrepreneurship and Small Business Centres worldwide, but less so in Africa. In fact only a handful of such Centres have been established in Africa. This may be linked to uncertainty on what the role of such a Centre should be, particularly when faced with an apparently well-developed supply of business support outside the University sector. This article critically reviews the traditional role of such centres in building national capacity in entrepreneurship and small business. Research increasingly is questioning the simple relationship between entrepreneurship and economic development, and suggests more critical thinking towards enhancing enterprise solutions in Africa. The article argues that African centres need to promote capacity building in a more sophisticated and critical manner, in which research and the involvement of stakeholder knowledge should be a central part of their mission. This is part of a new realisation that Africans need to address and find solutions themselves for intractable socio-economic challenges facing the continent. These reflections have led to some institutionalized effort that has been made at some universities which will be show-cased in this paper. These include the Entrepreneurship and Business Development Centre established in 2009 within the University of Swaziland, the Graduate Enterprise Academy (GEA) at Mount Kenya University and the fast spreading Student Training on Entrepreneurial Promotion (STEP).
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    Role of Handicraft Micro-Enterprises as a Catalyst for Youth Employment
    (Mount Kenya University, 2018) Oyekunle, Oluwayemisi Adebola; Mammo, Muchie,
    South Africa, like many other countries in the world, is faced with the difficulty of how to create employment for the country’s young population. There is a pressing need to equip the country’s youth with the means to develop their entrepreneurial potential. In this context, the government has to create a support mechanism to help integrate young people into the job market, through handicraft entrepreneurship. Department of Art, Culture, Science and Technology asserts that, not only does the handicraft sector provide income generation opportunities for groups which have access to resources, but also offers employment opportunities for the most economically disadvantaged people in South African society. However, the handicraft sector is performing at a level far below its potential in South Africa. The study sought to examine job creation, income generation and poverty alleviation opportunities in developing the microenterprise-handcraft linkage, with special attention to vulnerable sectors of society, the youths. The research used exploratory approach and qualitative data collection method. The paper presents research findings from both literature review and semi-structured interviews with local producers, supporters, and buyers of handicraft products in Cape Town, Western Cape Province. Finally, the study provides a comprehensive strategy on how to enhance the South African handicraft sector to better meet its needs as a micro-enterprise to create a better living for the people
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    Influence of Entrepreneurial Management on the Performance of Youth Owned Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya
    (Mount Kenya University, 2015) Kagone, Naomi Njeri; Orwa, George .O.; Ndolo, Jackson M.
    The main objective of the study was to establish the influence of strategic orientation on the performance of micro and small enterprises in the service sectors operated by the youth in Kiambu and Nairobi Counties, Kenya. The study takes firm characteristics as the moderating variables. The population of this study was 3280 ( three thousand two hundred and eighty) youth owned MSEs in Kiambu County and Nairobi County who had registered with the department of Youth and benefited from Youth Enterprises Development Fund (YEDF) from which a sample of respondents was selected. YEDF was established to address the economic challenges faced by youth. The fund constantly reviews its operational mechanisms from time to time in order to achieve its vision of creating a sustainable and growing fund though it does not seem to meet its economic objectives with many youths unable to pay back loan. Therefore, the study investigated the role of strategic orientation on the performance of youth owned MSES. The study variables used were entrepreneurial orientation, interaction orientation and market orientation. The sample size was 384 youths owned micro and small enterprise which was 10.5% of the population. The study used secondary data. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to check the validity and reliability of the questionnaires in gathering the data required for purposes of the study as the pilot study which was carried out. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. The specific descriptive statistics included percentages, frequencies, means and standard deviation. The inferential statistics included correlation and multiple linear regressions. The inferential statistics assisted in testing the study hypotheses. Qualitative data was presented descriptively and through statistical techniques such as tables, pie charts and bar graphs respectively. On the other hand, qualitative data was presented in continuous prose form.
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    Indigenization of Knowledge through Research as a Synergy to the Business World; An orientation of the Vision 2030
    (Mount Kenya University, 2018) Ochieng, Pamela
    The purpose of the study was to analyze the role of indigenous knowledge through research as a synergy to the business world an orientation of the vision 2030. The objectives included; to assess the business environment in Baringo County: to determine the role of indigenous knowledge in enhancing monitoring and evaluation in the business world and to determine the possible way forward in promoting entrepreneurship in Baringo County, Kenya.The study utilized an ecclectic approach with a focus on descriptive survey design. The sample comprised of three sub-counties in Baringo county Kenya.The study participants coprised of six public administrators, nine bussiness men and 300 local customers.The study findings revealed that It is important to incorporate research for a sustainable business world. The study participants observed that this can be best achieved through Action research. The public administrator observed that indigenous knowledge (IK) is a significant resource which couldcontribute to the increased efficiency, effectiveness and a better business world for sustainable development process, while the customers observed thatIK is the basis for community-level decision making in areas pertaining to foodsecurity, human and animal health, education, natural resource management and other vitaleconomic and social activities. The study stipulated the role of the Indigenous Knowledge for entrepreneurial Development Programs, described the objectives, and some of the achievements and the challenges ahead, with an orientation to the Kenya vision 2030. In conclusion, the study argued that the harnessing of IK empowers local communitiesand could help improve/aid effectiveness in poverty reduction. This can be championed by the Higher Education Institutions through action research in science and Technology, Innovation and Development
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    Individual Attributes as a Determinant in Predicting E-commerce Adoption: A Case of Manufacturing SMEs Industries in Nairobi, Kenya
    (Mount Kenya University, 2018) Nyoro, Michael; Njeru, Kevin; Wanyembi, Gregory
    Lately, researchers have been paying attention on e-commerce adoption equally in the developed and developing countries. The study’s main objective was to evaluate the individual factors influencing e-commerce adoption among SMEs within Nairobi Kenya from the perspective of CEOs, management and staff. The researcher investigated four factors affecting e-commerce adoption with emphasis on individual determinants versus technological, environmental, external and individual factors. The problem identified was lack of adequate research in EC adoption among SMES in the manufacturing industries. The research design used was both exploratory and descriptive. The underpinning theory used was Technology Acceptance Model theoretical framework. The researcher conducted the study based on the formulated research questions which consequently guided the structure of the questionnaires used. The proposed study area was manufacturing SMEs within Nairobi Kenya, who are registered with KAM. The data for the study was collected through sets of questionnaires, administered to respondents, as well as interviews with key stakeholders in the industry. For this study, stratified random sampling technique was applied to pick respondents and data collected was analyzed by using SPSS. A sample population of 78 SMEs was picked out of 243 KAM registered SMEs within Nairobi. The study concludes that individual attributes have a positive and highest influence on the adoption of e-commerce in manufacturing SMEs operating in Kenya. The study therefore recommends that the involved companies should invest in relevant IT training to create ICT awareness that will facilitate e-commerce adoption. The study also recommends that the organizations should come up with IT elaborate ecommerce campaigns to instill online business culture that will translate in enhancing ecommerce adoption. Hiring of key decision makers on ICT implementers should be drilled.
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    Making Entrepreneurship Promotion in Post-Conflict Countries Work for University Graduates: Lessons Learnt from Rwanda
    (Mount Kenya University, 2018) Nshimiyimana, Gonzalves; Matambalya, Francis A.S.T.
    For a post-crisis country, Rwanda’s socio-economic performance is highly appraised. Its business environ¬ment is greatly apprecia¬ted by diverse local and international stakeholders. However, it also faces insurmountable challenges. While stakeholders lament about lack of skilled workforce in all domains, youth unemployment remains prevalent. Apparently, Universities are not producing the right people for the labour market. This situation can, to a very large extent, be attributed to the fact that the country’s educational system, like many other things, is in a transition phase. The government has responded with an initiative to create entrepreneurship centres (ECs) in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). Alongside ECs, other key elements of entrepreneurship promotion initiative include: initiation of different entrepreneurship platforms (trade fairs, study tours, etc.), integration of entrepreneurship education and training in the curricula of HEIs. In spite of these positive developments, which are in line with country’s orientation and market demands, there is still a disconnection between what the HEIs do, and what the labour market wants. From this backdrop, the paper reflects on what can be done to reconcile the work of ECs and labour market needs. Using a purposive sampling approach, six incubators – three each from state-owned HEIs and private HEIs - were selected and analysed. Also, six managers, and six owner-managers represented the market side. Structured questionnaires were developed and personal interviews were used to collect data and information. On the basis of the findings, the paper recommends key strategies for success
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    The Role of Kenyan Universities in Promoting Growth of Small and Medium Enterprises
    (Mount Kenya University, 2018) Arnfred, Niels
    The following presentation is normative more so than analytical in the classical academic sense. Based on five years of presence in Kenya, the presentation observes and argues the following. First, Kenya has almost no share in the world prevalence of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR). 80% of its potential growth-creating enterprises die before they reach beyond the family-owned stage. Few of them, even if they may have potential IPR to unfold/defend, work with universities. Secondly, a close, longsighted collaboration between Universities, Industries and Government is requested to mobilize the potential of the Kenyan society when it comes to positioning itself in the global competition among nation states (“triple helix”). This requires proactive initiatives from all three parties and ideally an exchange of staff among the players. In addition, unless universities, public as well as private, contribute through developing their learning methodologies away from primarily requesting students to reproduce at the unit-exams what the lecturer informed them about, we shall not be able nurture and unleash the potential of innovations and entrepreneurship. Universities must support a mistake-are- allowed (or even encouraged!) culture and mindset, once students do their outmost. Universities in addition must pro-actively take upon them their key role of research-based institutions generating IPR. The fundamental and applied knowledge needed to implement strategies for Kenyan growth in alliance with Government and Industry must come from universities and unfold within specific partnerships with industry following strategic goals developed in dialogue with Government. We need role models of different ways of teaching and learning and a systematic Training of Trainers to develop a different mindset among university lecturers, which can subsequently lead to changes in the unitbased curricula, at least at degree-levels. Serving to illustrate the above, Copenhagen Business School-Executive in partnership with Equip Africa Institute, has developed a 16-month hands-on problem-solving program for SME leaders and owners. The program, leading to a master degree for executives, sets out to bridge the gap between academia and business and involves assignments on how to create business growth and value addition to Kenyan companies in Kenya and when expanding abroad
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    The Effect of Green Water Management on Performance of Manufacturing Companies: A Survey of Selected Companies in Thika Sub-County
    (Mount Kenya University, 2018) Ndambiri, Serah; Oyagi, Bernard
    Kenyan government through NEMA has been advocating and pressurizing business entities in taking up the responsibilities of conserving its environment. The study intended to identify the effect of green water management undertaken by manufacturing companies on their performance. The study was conducted in Thika municipality where different manufacturing companies operate and samples of 31 respondents were considered valid. The study adopted descriptive research, taking both qualitative and quantitative approach utilizing both secondary and primary data. The population included those companies that practice environment management where purposive sampling technique was used and a sample of three companies were selected. The main respondents of the study were the top and middle level managers and operational staff in the production department. Data was collected using structured questionnaires combined with personal interviews and observation which were then sorted and coded. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. SPSS aided in data analysis. The major effect of green water management was found to be on finances where 77.4% said the initial cost of water plant, equipment and technology as well as maintaining the practices was high. The high initial cost forced some companies to forego the practices. Adopting water conservation and management affected the performance of the company in that the company’s social relation with neighborhood is good thus having peaceful coexistence while doing its businesses. In addition by managing water, the company’s competitiveness increases due to government endorsement through certification
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    Assessment of Sustainable Strategies for Business Acceleration
    (Mount Kenya University, 2018) Mucheru, Stephen M.; Njeru, Phelista
    Business acceleration is a holistic advisory service that brings about rapid growth and sorts out all organizational, operational and strategy difficulties that may be facing a business. Small and medium enterprises are considered important in accelerating economic and social development. Business acceleration main objective is to produce successful firms that will survive in the competitive market. Business acceleration is measured by profits, productivity, human resources and customer care. Some of these strategies include; sales and marketing, financing, innovation and training. Innovation is the process of making changes to something to make it appealing to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the sustainable strategies for business acceleration. The study used an exploratory design. The target population was 55 employees of 5 companies, one general manager, 5 employees from marketing, 5 employees from research and development departments in companies involved in production of products and services in Nairobi County. Collection of data was done through the use of questionnaires and interviews. Data was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively and processed through statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20 with special emphasis on the facts and emerging themes that address the research questions and resulting correlation and regression analyses results presented using frequency tables and graphical techniques
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    The Efficacy of Traditional Innovation and Modern Science in Managing the Banana Value Chain
    (Mount Kenya University, 2018) Mucai, Paul Gitau; Okwang’a, Brenda Chitechi
    Bananas (Musa paradisiaca), have played and continue to play a major role in the diets of the people and the economies world over. It is an important food crop providing carbohydrates for both rural and urban households; though grossly suffering loss on the value chain due to its perishable nature. To mitigate this, farmers have adopted several traditional innovative coping strategies which include various ripening practices. The efficacy of these practices in enhancing ripening and their effects on the management of the banana value chain needs to be evaluated. The study was conducted in Imenti South sub-county of Meru County-Kenya. The study involved an experiment to evaluate the effects of traditional innovative banana ripening practices on the duration of ripening and quality of bananas. The five ripening practices were tested in a completely randomized design with three replications. It was found that the practices had an influence on the duration of ripening and quality of bananas. It was observed that the practice where avocado pears and purple passion fruits were used, bananas were influenced to ripen faster. Bananas induced with avocado pear fruits achieved higher sugar levels and a longer shelf life. Findings from this study led to the conclusion that it is beneficial to induce ripening of bananas. Use of avocado fruits influence; faster ripening, develop an appealing peel color, and give bananas a longer shelf life. Further study is recommended with a combination of ripening inducement materials.