Effectiveness of management strategies in the enhancement of Pupils’ access and participation in free primary school Education in Githunguri Kiambu County
Mburu, Ngaruiya Peter
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Despite the importance of education, its provision has been sluggish having experienced several bottlenecks contributing to low pupils access and participation in schools. Numerous efforts to manage access and participation of pupils have been made. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the management strategies in the enhancement of pupil’s access to and participation in free primary school education in Githunguri, Kiambu County. The study had four objectives namely; to analyze social economic variables affecting access and participation, to examine school based variables affecting access and participation, to assess management strategies put in place to enhance pupils’ access and participation and to investigate the effectiveness of the management strategies put in place to enhance pupils’ access and participation in primary school education. The study was guided by the classical liberal theory of equal opportunity as advanced by Dewey in 1916. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The study population included all the 50 public day primary schools in Githunguri District. The sample was drawn using stratified sampling technique. Simple random sampling was used to select 2 schools from each of the 4 zones thus making a sample of 8 schools (15%). Random sampling was then used to select pupils from the sampled schools. Convenient sampling was used to select school aged non attending children to be included in the study. The total sample was 8 head teachers (15%), 96 pupils and 40 school- aged non attending children. These constituted a total sample size of 144 respondents. The study used questionnaires and interview schedule to collect data. Questionnaires were used to collect data from head teachers and pupils while an interview schedule was used to interview school aged non attending children. Piloting of the research instruments was done in 2 schools in Githunguri District which were not included in the actual study. Test re- test technique was used to assess the reliability of the research instruments while the supervisor assessed their validity. Data obtained was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative data was analyzed through descriptive statistics using frequencies in tables and percentages. Qualitative data was analyzed by arranging responses according to the research questions and objectives in narrative form. The results of the study indicated the cost of education, low income, child labor, illiteracy among parents and large family sizes are the major social economic variable affecting access and participation. The results of the study indicated that many children who fail to access primary school education come from large families of parents who have low income. These parents have no salaries occupation and majority of them never attended primary school hence they are still ignorant of the importance of primary education. Many children are also involved in child labor even when in school since some have to feed themselves and their younger siblings. Shortage of teachers has also continued to effect access and participation resulting to overcrowding of pupils in classes and poor performance. In order to improve access and participation the study recommended that the Teachers Service Commission needs to employ more teachers to help implement free primary program, sensitization of community on Children’s’ Act and other international instruments on the rights of children, outlawing of pupils repetition and the introduction of school feeding programs as a way of retaining pupils in school.
- School of Education